Published on in Vol 6, No 3 (2018): Jul-Sep

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Head-Mounted Virtual Reality and Mental Health: Critical Review of Current Research

Head-Mounted Virtual Reality and Mental Health: Critical Review of Current Research

Head-Mounted Virtual Reality and Mental Health: Critical Review of Current Research


  1. Migoya-Borja M, Delgado-Gómez D, Carmona-Camacho R, Porras-Segovia A, López-Moriñigo J, Sánchez-Alonso M, Albarracín García L, Guerra N, Barrigón M, Alegría M, Baca-García E. Feasibility of a Virtual Reality-Based Psychoeducational Tool (VRight) for Depressive Patients. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 2020;23(4):246 View
  2. Browning M, Mimnaugh K, van Riper C, Laurent H, LaValle S. Can Simulated Nature Support Mental Health? Comparing Short, Single-Doses of 360-Degree Nature Videos in Virtual Reality With the Outdoors. Frontiers in Psychology 2020;10 View
  3. Wechsler T, Kümpers F, Mühlberger A. Inferiority or Even Superiority of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in Phobias?—A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis on Randomized Controlled Trials Specifically Comparing the Efficacy of Virtual Reality Exposure to Gold Standard in vivo Exposure in Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, and Social Phobia. Frontiers in Psychology 2019;10 View
  4. Grassini S, Laumann K. Are Modern Head-Mounted Displays Sexist? A Systematic Review on Gender Differences in HMD-Mediated Virtual Reality. Frontiers in Psychology 2020;11 View
  5. Lindner P, Rozental A, Jurell A, Reuterskiöld L, Andersson G, Hamilton W, Miloff A, Carlbring P. Experiences of Gamified and Automated Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia: Qualitative Study. JMIR Serious Games 2020;8(2):e17807 View
  6. Riva G, Wiederhold B, Mantovani F. Neuroscience of Virtual Reality: From Virtual Exposure to Embodied Medicine. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 2019;22(1):82 View
  7. Wong R, Ho F, Tung K, Fu K, Ip P. Effect of Pokémon Go on Self-Harm Using Population-Based Interrupted Time-Series Analysis: Quasi-Experimental Study. JMIR Serious Games 2020;8(2):e17112 View
  8. Dietrichkeit M, Grzella K, Nagel M, Moritz S. Using virtual reality to explore differences in memory biases and cognitive insight in people with psychosis and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research 2020;285:112787 View
  9. Jenny C, Reuter C. Usability of Individualized Head-Related Transfer Functions in Virtual Reality: Empirical Study With Perceptual Attributes in Sagittal Plane Sound Localization. JMIR Serious Games 2020;8(3):e17576 View
  10. Brown T, Nauman Vogel E, Adler S, Bohon C, Bullock K, Nameth K, Riva G, Safer D, Runfola C. Bringing Virtual Reality From Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice for the Treatment of Eating Disorders: An Example Using Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(4):e16386 View
  11. Schleider J, Mullarkey M, Weisz J. Virtual Reality and Web-Based Growth Mindset Interventions for Adolescent Depression: Protocol for a Three-Arm Randomized Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2019;8(7):e13368 View
  12. Ding L, Hua H, Zhu H, Zhu S, Lu J, Zhao K, Xu Q. Effects of virtual reality on relieving postoperative pain in surgical patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Surgery 2020;82:87 View
  13. Boeldt D, McMahon E, McFaul M, Greenleaf W. Using Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Enhance Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Identifying Areas of Clinical Adoption and Potential Obstacles. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2019;10 View
  14. Sun F, Pan L, Wan R, Li H, Wu S. Detecting the effect of student engagement in an SVVR school-based course on higher level competence development in elementary schools by SEM. Interactive Learning Environments 2021;29(1):3 View
  15. Hilty D, Randhawa K, Maheu M, McKean A, Pantera R, Mishkind M, Rizzo A. A Review of Telepresence, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality Applied to Clinical Care. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science 2020;5(2):178 View
  16. Snoswell A, Snoswell C. Immersive Virtual Reality in Health Care: Systematic Review of Technology and Disease States. JMIR Biomedical Engineering 2019;4(1):e15025 View
  17. Anik A, Xavier B, Hansmann J, Ansong E, Chen J, Zhao L, Michals E. Accuracy and Reproducibility of Linear and Angular Measurements in Virtual Reality: a Validation Study. Journal of Digital Imaging 2020;33(1):111 View
  18. Trahan M, Morley R, Nason E, Rodrigues N, Huerta L, Metsis V. Virtual Reality Exposure Simulation for Student Veteran Social Anxiety and PTSD: A Case Study. Clinical Social Work Journal 2021;49(2):220 View
  19. Paul M, Bullock K, Bailenson J. Virtual Reality Behavioral Activation as an Intervention for Major Depressive Disorder: Case Report. JMIR Mental Health 2020;7(11):e24331 View
  20. Riva G, Serino S. Virtual Reality in the Assessment, Understanding and Treatment of Mental Health Disorders. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2020;9(11):3434 View
  21. Sañudo B, Abdi E, Bernardo-Filho M, Taiar R. Aerobic Exercise with Superimposed Virtual Reality Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Selective Attention in Young Males. Applied Sciences 2020;10(22):8029 View
  22. Tao G, Garrett B, Taverner T, Cordingley E, Sun C. Immersive virtual reality health games: a narrative review of game design. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2021;18(1) View
  23. Hernandez R, Burrows B, Browning M, Solai K, Fast D, Litbarg N, Wilund K, Moskowitz J. Mindfulness-based Virtual Reality Intervention in Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Study on End-user Perceptions and Safety. Kidney360 2021;2(3):435 View
  24. Liang H, Chi S, Chen B, Hwang Y. Reliability and Validity of a Virtual Reality-Based System for Evaluating Postural Stability. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 2021;29:85 View
  25. Siani A, Marley S. Impact of the recreational use of virtual reality on physical and mental wellbeing during the Covid-19 lockdown. Health and Technology 2021;11(2):425 View
  26. Appel L, Kisonas E, Appel E, Klein J, Bartlett D, Rosenberg J, Smith C. Administering Virtual Reality Therapy to Manage Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients With Dementia Admitted to an Acute Care Hospital: Results of a Pilot Study. JMIR Formative Research 2021;5(2):e22406 View
  27. Nameth K, Brown T, Bullock K, Adler S, Riva G, Safer D, Runfola C. Translating Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy for Binge Eating into a Real-World Setting: An Uncontrolled Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2021;10(7):1511 View
  28. Lundin R, Menkes D. Commentary: Managing Virtual Hybrid Psychiatrist-Patient Relationships in a Digital World. Frontiers in Public Health 2021;9 View
  29. Asiain J, Braun M, Roussos A. Virtual reality as a psychotherapeutic tool: current uses and limitations. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 2021:1 View
  30. Zhang S, Chen M, Yang N, Lu S, Ni S. Effectiveness of VR based mindfulness on psychological and physiological health: A systematic review. Current Psychology 2021 View
  31. Salisbury J. Using Medical Device Standards for Design and Risk Management of Immersive Virtual Reality for At-Home Therapy and Remote Patient Monitoring. JMIR Biomedical Engineering 2021;6(2):e26942 View
  32. Grassini S, Laumann K, de Martin Topranin V, Thorp S. Evaluating the effect of multi-sensory stimulations on simulator sickness and sense of presence during HMD-mediated VR experience. Ergonomics 2021:1 View
  33. Best P, Meireles M, Schroeder F, Montgomery L, Maddock A, Davidson G, Galway K, Trainor D, Campbell A, Van Daele T. Freely Available Virtual Reality Experiences as Tools to Support Mental Health Therapy: a Systematic Scoping Review and Consensus Based Interdisciplinary Analysis. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science 2021 View
  34. Tsamitros N, Sebold M, Gutwinski S, Beck A. Virtual Reality-Based Treatment Approaches in the Field of Substance Use Disorders. Current Addiction Reports 2021 View
  35. Rimer E, Husby L, Solem S. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Fear of Heights: Clinicians’ Attitudes Become More Positive After Trying VRET. Frontiers in Psychology 2021;12 View
  36. Ong T, Wilczewski H, Paige S, Soni H, Welch B, Bunnell B. Extended Reality for Enhanced Telehealth During and Beyond COVID-19: Viewpoint. JMIR Serious Games 2021;9(3):e26520 View
  37. Brassel S, Power E, Campbell A, Brunner M, Togher L. Recommendations for the Design and Implementation of Virtual Reality for Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(7):e26344 View
  38. Jóźwik S, Cieślik B, Gajda R, Szczepańska-Gieracha J. The Use of Virtual Therapy in Cardiac Rehabilitation of Female Patients with Heart Disease. Medicina 2021;57(8):768 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Fernández-Álvarez J, Di Lernia D, Riva G. Anxiety Disorders. View
  2. Fernández-Alvarez J, Colombo D, Botella C, García-Palacios A, Riva G. Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health. View
  3. Muñoz D, Chow K, Wei H. Interactivity and Game Creation. View