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A multidisciplinary journal on gaming and gamification including simulation and immersive virtual reality for health education/promotion, teaching and social change.
JMIR Serious Games (JSG, ISSN 2291-9279; Impact Factor: 2.226) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to computer/web/virtual reality/mobile applications that incorporate elements of gaming, gamification or novel hardware platforms such as virtual reality headsets or Microsoft Kinect to solve serious problems such as health behavior change, physical exercise promotion (exergaming), medical rehabilitation, diagnosis and treatment of psychological/psychiatric disorders, medical education, health promotion, teaching and education, or social change. The journal also considers commentary and research in the fields of video games violence and video games addiction.
The journal is indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central, DOAJ, and SCIE/Web of Science, and JCR (Journal Citation Reports) where it received an official impact factor by Clarivate. In June 2018, JSG received an official inaugural journal impact factor of 2.226 (Journal Citation Reports 2017, Clarivate Analytics), ranking JSG at the top of all gaming related academic journals, ahead of (for example) more established competitor journals such as the Games for Health Journal.
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Background: Medical education is currently evolving from 'learning by doing' to simulation based hands on tutorials. Objective: The aim of this prospective 2-armed study is to evaluate a newly develop...
Background: Medical education is currently evolving from 'learning by doing' to simulation based hands on tutorials. Objective: The aim of this prospective 2-armed study is to evaluate a newly developed augmented reality ultrasound application and its effect on educational training and diagnostic accuracy. Methods: 66 medical students were recruited and using imaging and measuring a kidney as quality indicator were tested on the time they needed for imaging. Both groups used text books as preparation; in addition, the study group had access to a virtual ultrasound simulation application for mobile devices (APP). Results: There was no significant difference between the study arms regarding age, gender and previous ultrasound experience. The time needed to complete the kidney measurements also did not differ significantly. However, the results of the longitudinal kidney measurements differed significantly between study and control group, with larger more realistic values in the study group (study group: medianright 105.3 mm, range 86.1 mm – 127.1 mm, control group: medianright 92 mm, range 50.4 mm – 112.2 mm; p < .01; study group: medianleft 100.3 mm, range 81.7 mm – 118.6 mm, control group: medianleft 85.3 mm, range 48.3 mm – 113.4 mm; p < .01). Furthermore, whilst all students of the study group obtained valid measurements, students of the control group failed to obtain valid measurements of one or both kidneys in seven cases. Conclusions: To summarize, the newly developed augmented reality ultrasound simulator APP provides a useful add-on for ultrasound education and training. Our results indicate that the use of the APP for training purposes results in improved quality of kidney measurements in medical students. Clinical Trial: The Trial was registered with the local ethics commission
Background: Performing high-level surgeries with endoscopy are challenging, and hence, an efficient surgical training method or system is required. Serious-game-based simulators can provide a trainee-...
Background: Performing high-level surgeries with endoscopy are challenging, and hence, an efficient surgical training method or system is required. Serious-game-based simulators can provide a trainee-centered educational environment unlike the traditional teacher-centered education environments because serious game provides a high level of interaction (feedback that induces learning). Objective: We herein propose an epiduroscopy simulator, EpiduroSIM, based on a serious game for spatial cognitive training. Methods: The proposed EpiduroSIM is designed based on a serious game. For spatial cognitive training, the virtual environment of the proposed EpiduroSIM is modeled based on a cognitive map. The proposed EpiduroSIM is developed considering user accessibility, to provide various functions. The experiment for the validation of the proposed EpiduroSIM focused on the psychological fidelity and repetitive training effects. The experiments were conducted by dividing 16 specialists into 2 groups of 8 surgeons. The group was divided into the beginner and the expert, based on their epiduroscopy experience. Results: The psychological fidelity of the proposed EpiduroSIM was confirmed through the training results of the expert group rather than the beginner group. In addition, the repetitive training effect of the proposed EpiduroSIM was confirmed by improving the training results in the beginner group. Conclusions: The proposed EpiduroSIM may be useful for beginner surgeons to train epiduroscopy. Clinical Trial: N/A
Background: Increasing numbers of children undergo ambulatory surgery each year and a significant proportion experiences substantial preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain. The management of peri...
Background: Increasing numbers of children undergo ambulatory surgery each year and a significant proportion experiences substantial preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain. The management of perioperative anxiety and pain remains challenging in children and is inadequate, which negatively impacts physical, psychosocial, and economic outcomes. Existing non-pharmacological interventions are costly, time consuming, vary in availability, and lack benefits. Therefore, there is a need for an evidence-based, accessible, non-pharmacological intervention as an adjunct to existing pharmacological alternatives to reduce perioperative anxiety and pain in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Technology-enabled interventions have been proposed as a method to address the unmet need in this setting. In particular, serious games for health (SGHs) hold unique potential to change health beliefs and behaviors in children. Objective: The objective of this research was to describe the rationale, scientific evidence, design aspects, and features of CliniPup, an SGH aimed at reducing perioperative anxiety and pain in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Methods: The SERES framework for SGH development was used to create the SGH, CliniPup. In particular, a mixed-methods approach was applied that consisted of a structured literature review supplemented with ethnographic research, such as expert interviews and a time-motion exercise. The resulting scientific evidence base was leveraged to ensure that the resulting SGH was relevant, realistic, and theory-driven. A participatory design approach was applied wherein clinical experts qualitatively reviewed several versions of the SGH and an iterative creative process was used to integrate the applicable feedback. Results: CliniPup, an SGH, was developed to incorporate (1) scientific evidence base from a structured literature review, (2) realistic content collected during ethnographic research such as expert interviews, (3) explicit pedagogical objectives from scientific literature, and (4) game mechanics and user interface design that address key aspects of the evidence. Conclusions: This report details the systematic development of CliniPup, an SGH aimed at reducing perioperative anxiety and pain in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Clinical experts validated CliniPup’s underlying scientific evidence base and design foundations, suggesting that it was well designed for preliminary evaluation in the target population. An evaluation plan is proposed and briefly described.
Background: As pediatric ambulatory surgeries are rising and existing methods to reduce perioperative anxiety and pain are lacking in this population, a serious game for health (SGH), CliniPup, was de...
Background: As pediatric ambulatory surgeries are rising and existing methods to reduce perioperative anxiety and pain are lacking in this population, a serious game for health (SGH), CliniPup, was developed to address this unmet need. CliniPup was generated using the SERES framework for serious game development. Objective: To clinically evaluate CliniPup, an SGH, as an adjunct therapy to existing pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing perioperative anxiety and pain in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. Methods: CliniPup was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot trial in 20 children aged 6-10 years who underwent elective surgery, and their parents. Study participants were randomly assigned to the test (n=12) or control group (n=8). Children in the test group played CliniPup 2-days prior to surgery and children in the control group received standard of care. On the day of surgery, pediatric anxiety was measured with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) and parental anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Pediatric postoperative pain was assessed by the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS). Child and parent user experience and satisfaction was also evaluated in the test group using structured questionnaires. Results: Despite the small sample, preoperative anxiety scores were significantly lower (P = .01) in children who played CliniPup prior to surgery, compared to controls. Parental preoperative anxiety scores were also lower in the test group (P = .10), but did not reach significance. No significant differences were observed in postoperative pain scores between groups (P = .54). The evaluation of user experience and satisfaction revealed that both children and parents were satisfied with CliniPup and would recommend the game to peers. Conclusions: Results of the pilot trial introduce CliniPup as a potentially effective and attractive adjunct therapy, to reduce preoperative anxiety in children undergoing ambulatory surgery, with a trend towards positive impact on parental preoperative anxiety. These results support the use of the SERES framework to generate an evidence-based SGH, which results in positive health outcomes for patients. Based on these preliminary findings, we propose a research agenda to further develop and investigate this tool.
Background: In recent years many studies have associated the long time spent sedentary in front of screens with health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Yet options for exergaming – pl...
Background: In recent years many studies have associated the long time spent sedentary in front of screens with health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Yet options for exergaming – playing video games that require rigorous physical exercise – seem to fail short of the physical activity levels recommended by the WHO. Objective: Here we test a full immersive VR-based training system designed to improve its users’ cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness while providing an enjoyable workout. Methods: A cross-sectional experiment design was used to analyze muscle activity (sEMG), heart rate, perceived rate of exhaustion (RPE) as well as cybersickness symptoms (SSQ), perceived workload, and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) from 33 participants performing a 5-min VR-simulated flight on a new training device. Results: The participants’ attempt to hold the planking position required to play the game resulted in moderate aerobic intensity (108 bpm ± 18.69). Due to the mainly isometric contraction of the dorsal muscle chain (with a mean activation between 20.6% (± 10.57) and 26.7% MVC (± 17.39)) they described the exercise as a moderate to vigorous activity (RPE 14.6 ± 1.82). The majority of the participants reported that they enjoyed the exercise (PACES 3.74 ± 0.16). However, six participants had to drop out because of cybersickness symptoms. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that fully immersive VR training systems can contribute to muscle-strengthening activities for healthy users. However, the drop-out rate highlights the need for technological improvements in both software and hardware. In prevention and therapy, movement quality is a fundamental element in providing effective resistance training that benefits health. Exergaming on a regular basis has the potential to develop strong muscles and a healthy back. It is essential that future VR-based training systems take into account the recommendations of sport and exercise science.